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Lower Extremity Venous Stent Placement: A Large Retrospective Single-Center Analysis

Publication Type:

Journal Article


J Vasc Interv Radiol, Volume 31, Number 2, p.251-259 e2 (2020)


1535-7732 (Electronic)<br/>1051-0443 (Linking)

Accession Number:




*Iliac Vein/diagnostic imaging/physiopathology, *Stents, *Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging/physiopathology, Adult, Databases, Factual, Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects/*instrumentation/mortality, Female, Humans, Lower Extremity/*blood supply, Male, Middle Aged, Retrospective Studies, Risk factors, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, Vascular Patency, Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging/mortality/physiopathology/*therapy


PURPOSE: To study short-term and long-term outcomes of lower extremity venous stents placed at a single center and to characterize changes in vein diameter achieved by stent placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database of all patients who received lower extremity venous stents between 1996 and 2018 revealed 1,094 stents were placed in 406 patients (172 men, 234 women; median age, 49 y) in 513 limbs, including patients with iliocaval stents (9.4% acute thrombosis, 65.3% chronic thrombosis, 25.3% nonthrombotic lesions). Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates were assessed for lower extremity venous stents at 1, 3, and 5 years using Kaplan-Meier analyses and summary statistics. Subset analyses and Cox regression were performed to identify risk factors for patency loss. Vein diameters and Villalta scores before and up to 12 months after stent placement were compared. Complication and mortality rates were calculated. RESULTS: Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates at 5 years were 57.3%, 77.2%, and 80.9% by Kaplan-Meier methods and 78.6%, 90.3%, and 92.8% by summary statistics. Median follow-up was 199 days (interquartile range, 35.2-712.0 d). Patency rates for the subset of patients (n = 46) with >/= 5 years of follow-up (mean +/- SD 9.1 y +/- 3.4) were nearly identical to cohort patency rates at 5 years. Patients with inferior vena cava stent placement (hazard ratio 2.11, P < .0001) or acute thrombosis (hazard ratio 3.65, P < .0001) during the index procedure had significantly increased risk of losing primary patency status. Vein diameters were significantly greater after stent placement. There were no instances of stent fracture, migration, or structural deformities. In patients with chronic deep vein thrombosis, Villalta scores significantly decreased after stent placement (from 15.7 to 7.4, P < .0001). Perioperative mortality was < 1%, and major perioperative complication rate was 3.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Cavo-ilio-femoral stent placement for venous occlusive disease achieves improvement of vein disease severity scores, increase in treated vein diameters, and satisfactory long-term patency rates.